Literature Bank

Deep Venous Thrombosis
Inferior Vena Cava
Non-traumatic Abdomen
Pediatric Ultrasound
Policies, Protocols,Training and Guidelines
Regional Anesthesia
Soft Tissue and Musculoskeletal
Vascular Access



Curtis K, Ahern M, Dawson M et. al. Ultrasound guided, bougie assisted cricothyroidotomy: a description of a novel technique in cadaveric models – Academic Emergency Medicine (2012) 19: 876-879.

Adhikari S Zeger W and Schmier C. Pilot study to determine the utility of point of care ultrasound in the assessment of difficult laryngoscopy – Academic Emergency Medicine (2011) 18: 754-758.

Hung T Li S and Chen P. Bedside ultrasonography as a safe and effective tool to diagnose acute epiglottitis – Am J Emerg Med (2011) 29(3): 359e 1-3.

Kleine-Brueggeney M Greif R and Ross S. Ultrasound Guided Percutaneous Tracheal Puncture: A CT Controlled Study in Cadavers – British Journal of Anesthesia (2011) 106(5): 738-42.

Nicholls SE, Sweeney TW, Ferre RM et. al. Bedside sonography by emergency physicians for the rapid identification of landmarks relevant to cricothyrotomy - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2008) 26:852-856.

Werner SL, Smith CE, Goldstein JR, et al. Pilot Study to Evaluate the Accuracy of Ultrasonography in Confirming Endotracheal Tube Placement; Annals of Emergency Medicine (2007) 49: 75-80.

Sustic A. Role of ultrasound in the airway management of critically ill patients; Critical Care Medicine (2007) 35(5): S173-S177.


Rubano E, Mehta N, Caputo W et al. Systematic Review: Emergency department bedside ultrasonography for diagnosing suspected abdominal aortic aneurysm – Academic Emergency Medicine (2013) 20:128-238.

Roxas R, Gallegos L, Bailitz. Rapid Detection of Aortic Occlusion With Emergency Ultrasonography Ann Emerg Med (2011) 58:21-23.

Hoffmann B, Um P, Bessman ES et al. Routine Screening for Asympotmatic Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in High-risk Patients is not Recommended in Emergency Departments that are Frequently Crowded; Academic Emergency Medicine (2009) 16:1242-1250.

Kosiak W, Swieton D, Piskunowicz M, Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Asymptomatic-at-risk Patients Using Emergency Ultrasound; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2008) 26:320-325.

Phelan MP, Emerman CL. Focused Aortic Ultrasound to Evalutate the Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in ED Patients with High-risk Symptoms; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2006) 24:227-229.

Tayal VS, Graf CD, Gibbs M. Prospective Study of Accuracy and Outcome of Emergency Utlrasound for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm over Two Years; Academic Emergency Medicine (2003) 10:867-71.

Kuhn M, Bonnin RL, Davey MJ et al. Emergency Deparmtent Ultrasound Scanning for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Accessible, Accurate and Advantageous - Annals of Emergency Medicine (2000) 36: 219-223.


Jafari D, Cheng AB, Dean AJ.  Dynamic changes of common bile duct diameter during an episode of biliary colic, documented by ultrasonography – Annals of Emergency Medicine (2013) 

Jang TB, Ruggeri W, Kaji AH. Emergency utltrasound of the gallbladder: comparison of a concentrated elective experience vs longitudinal exposure during residency - Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012).

Ross M, Brown M, McLaughlin K. Emergency physician performed ultrasound to diagnose cholelithiasis: a systematic revie - Academic Emergency Medicine (2011) 18: 227-235.

Summers SM, Scruggs W, Menchine MD et al. A prospective evaluation of emergency department bedside ultrasonography for the detection of acute cholecystitis - Ann Emerg Med (2010) 56: 114-22.

Jang TB. Bedside biliary sonography: advancement and future horizons - Ann Emerg Med (2010) 56: 123-5.

Jang TB, Ruggeri W, Dyne P et al. The Learning Curve of Resident Physicians Using Emergency Ultrasonography for Cholelithiasis and Cholecystitis, Academic Emergency Medicine (2010) 17:1247-1252.

Horrow MM. Ultrasound of the extrahepatic bile duct, Ultrasound Quarterly (2010) 26:67-74.

Spence SC, Teichgraeber D, Chandrasekhar C. Emergent Right Upper Quadrant Sonography. J of Ultrasound in Medicine (2009) 28:479-496.

Rubens DJ. Ultrasound Imaging of the Biliary Tract - Ultrasound Clin (2007) 2:391-413.

Gaspari RJ, Dickman E, Blehar D. Impact of Bedside Right Upper Quadrant Ultrasonography on Radiology Imaging; Emer Radiol (2006) 13:3-5.

Kendall JL, Shimp RJ. Performance and Interpretation of Focused Right Upper Quadrant Ultrasound by Emergency Physicians; The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2001) 21:7-13.

Blaivas M, Harwood RA, Lambert MJ. Decreasing Length of Stay with Emergency Ultrasound Examination of the Gallbladder; Academic Emergency Medicine (1999) 6:1020-1023.


Dresden S, Mitchell P, Rahimi L et al. Right ventricular dilation on bedside echocardiography performed by emergency physicians aids in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism - Annals of Emergency Medicine (2014);63:16-24.

McKaigney CJ, Krantz MJ, La Rocque CL. E-point septal separation: a bedside tool for emergency physician assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction - American journal of Emergency Medicine (2014).

Taylor RA, Davis J, Liu R et al. Point of care focused ultrasound for prediction of pulmonary embolism adverse outcomes - Journal of Emergency Medicine (2013).

Cohn B.  Does the absence of cardiac activity on ultrasonography predict failed resuscitation in cardiac arrest? – Annals of Emergency Medicine (2013)

Anderson KL, Jenq KY, Fields M, et al.  Diagnosing heart failure among acutely dyspneic patients with cardiac, inferior vena cava and lung ultrasonography - American  Journal of Emergency Medicine (2013)

Press GM, Miller S. Utility of the cardiac component of FAST in blunt trauma - Journal of Emergency Medicine (2013) 44(1):9-16.

Spencer KT, Kimura BJ, Korcarz CE et al. Focused Cardiac Ultrasound: Recommendations fro the American Society of Echocardiography – Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography (2013) 26: 567-581.

Taylor RA Oliva I and Van Tonder R. Point of care focused cardiac ultrasound for the assessment of thoracic aortic dimensions, dilation and aneurysmal disease – Acad Emerg Med (2012) 19: 244-247.

Bailey S, Herring A, Stone M et. al. Focused cardiac ultrasound for the detection of a ventricular aneurysm - Western Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012) 13(4):326-328.

Zerth H, Harwood R, Tommaso L et al. An Inexpensive, Easily Constructed, Reusable Task Trainer for Simulating Ultrasound-Guided Pericardiocentesis - J Emerg Med (2012) 43:1066-9.

Unluer EE, Bayata S, Postaci N et. al. Limited bedside echocardiography by emergency physicians for diagnosis of diastolic heart failure - Emergency Medicine Journal (2012) 29:280-283.

Dinh VA, Ko HS, Rao R, et. al. Measuring cardiac index with a focused cardiac ultrasound examination in the ED - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012).

Secko M Lazar J and Salciccioli L. Can Junior Emergency Physicians use E-point Septal Separation to Accurately Estimate Left Ventricular Function in Acutely Dyspneic Patients – Acad Emerg Med (2011) 18: 1223-1226.

Volpicelli G. Usefulness of emergency ultrasound in nontraumatic cardiac arrest – Am J Emerg Med (2011) 29(2): 216-23.

Weekes A Tassone H and Babcock A. Comparison of Serial Qualitative and Quantitative Assessments of Caval Index and LV Systolic Function During Early Fluid Resuscitation of Hypotensive Emergency Department Patients – Acad Emerg Med (2011) 18(9): 912-921.

Nagdev A Stone M. Point-of-Care Ultrasound Evaluation of Pericardial Effusion: Does the patient have cardiac tamponade – Resuscitation (2011) 82: 671-673.

Andersen GN, Haugen BO, Graven T, et. al. Feasibility and reliability of point of care pocket sized echocardiography - European Journal of Echocardiography (2011) 12:665-670.

Kimura BJ Kedar E and Weiss D. A bedside ultrasound sign of cardiac disease: the left atrium-to-aorta diastolic diameter ratio – Am J Emerg Med (2010) 28(2): 203-7.

Kohli-Seth Neuman T and Rakesh S. Use of Echocardiography and Modalities of Patient Monitoring of Trauma Patients – Current Opinions in Anesthesiology (2010) 1-6.

Labovitz A Noble V and Bierig M. Focused cardiac ultrasound in the emergent setting: a consensus statement of the American society of echocardiography and the American college of emergency physicians - J Am Soc of Echocardiography (2010) 1225-30.

Lucas B Candotti C and Margeta B. Diagnostic accuracy of hospitalist performed hand-carried ultrasound echocardiography after a brief training program – J of Hosp Med (2009) 4(6): 340-49.

Moore C. Current Issues with Emergency Cardiac Ultrasound Probe and Image Conventions – Acad Emerg Med (2008) 15(3): 278-84.

Volpicelli G Caramello V and Cardinale L. Bedside Ultrasound of the Lung for the Monitoring of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure – Am J Emerg Med (2008) 26: 585-591.

Saito Y Donohue A and Attai S. The Syndrome of Cardiac Tamponade with “Small” Pericardial Effusion – Echocardiography (2008) 25(3): 321-7.

Gunst M Sperry J Ghaemmaghami V. Bedside echocardiographic assessment for trauma/critical care: the BEAT exam – J Am Coll Surg (2008) 207(3): e1-3.

Blaivas M. Transesophageal echocardiography during cardiopulmonary arrest in the emergency department– Recuscitation (2008) 78: 135-140.

Mark DG Ku B and Carr B. Directed bedside transthoracic echocardiography: preferred cardiac window for left ventricular ejection fraction estimation in critically ill patients – Am J Emerg Med (2007) 25(8): 894-900.

Novik J and Weekes AJ. An unusual cause of severe dyspnea: diastolic dysfunction due to calcific constrictive pericarditis - The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2010) 38(2): 208-213.

Beaulieu Y. Bedside echocardiography in the assessment of the critically ill - Critical Care Medicine (2007) 35:S235-S249.

Pepi M Muratori M. Echocardiography in the diagnosis and management of pericardial disease – J Card Med (2006) 7:533-44.

Jones A Tayal V and Sullivan M. Randomized, Controlled Trial for Immediate Versus Delayed Goal-directed Ultrasound to Identify the Cause of Non-traumatic Hypotension in Emergency Department Patients - Critical Care Medicine (2004) 32(8): 1703-8.

Randazzo M Snoey E and Levitt A. Accuracy of Emergency Physician Assessment of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Central Venous Pressure Using Echocardiography – Acad Emerg Med (2003) 10(9): 973-7.

Moore C Rose G and Tayal V. Determination of Left Ventricular Function by Emergency Physician Echocardiography of Hypotensive Patients – Acad Emerg Med (2002) 9(3): 186-93.

Mandavia D Hoffner R and Mahaney K. Bedside Echocardiography by Emergency Physicians – Ann Emerg Med (2001) 38(4): 377-82.

Blaivas M Fox JC. Outcome in Cardiac Arrest Patients Found to Have Cardiac Standstill on the Bedside Emergency Department Echocardiogram – Acad Emerg Med (2001) 8(6): 616-21.

Deep venous Thrombosis

Kory PD, Pellecchia CM, Shiloh AL et. al. Accuracy of ultrasonography performed by critical care physicians for the diagnosis of DVT - Chest (2011); 139:538-542.

Crisp J Lovato L and Jang T. Compression ultrasonography of the lower extremity with portable vascular ultrasonography can accurately detect deep venous thrombosis in the emergecny department– Ann Emerg Med (2010) 56(6): 601-10.

Kline J O’Malley P and Tayal V. Emergency Clinician-Performed Compression Ultrasonography for Deep Venous Thrombosis of the Lower Extremity – Ann Emerg Med (2008) 20(10): 1-9.

Burnside PR, Brown MD, Kline JA. Systematic review of emergency physician performed ultrasonography for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis - Academic Emergency Medicine (2008) 15:493-498.

McIlrath ST Blaivas M and Lyon M. Patient follow-up after negative lower extremity ultrasound for deep venous thrombosis in the ED – Am J Emerg Med (2006) 24(3): 325-8.


Christensen CM, Bohmer R, Kenagy J. Will disruptive innovations cure health care? Harvard Business Review. September - October 2000.


Aspler A, Pivetta E, Stone MB. Double-lung point sign in traumatic pneumothorax - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2014)

Smith Z, Wood D. Femergency focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) and hemodynamic stability - Emergency Medicine Journal (2013)

Press GM, Miller S. Utility of the cardiac component of FAST in blunt traum - Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012).

Hoffmann B, Nurnberg D, Wesergaard MC. Focus on abnormal air: diagnostic ultrasonography for the acute abdomen - European Emergency Medicine Journal (2012)

Seif D, Perera P, Mailhot R, Riley D, Mandavia D. Bedside ultrasound in resuscitation and the rapid ultrasound in shock protocol - Critical Care Research and Practice (2012)

Patel NY, Riherd JM. Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma: Methods, Accuracy, and Indications - Surg Clin North Am - ( 2011) 91(1); 195-207.

Hefny AF, Abu-Zidan FM. Sonographic Diagnosis of Intraperitoneal Free Air; Journal of Emergencies Trauma and Shock (2011) 4:511-513.

Damewood S, Jeanmonod D, Cadigan B. Comparison on a Multimedia Simulator to a Human Model for Teaching FAST exam Image Interpretation and Image Acquistion - Academic Emergency Medicine (2011) 18:413-419.

Shokoohi H Boniface K and Siegel A. Horizontal Subxiphoid Landmark Optimizes Probe Placement during the FAST Ultrasound Exam – Euro Emerg Med (2011) 1-5.

Wilkerson RG, Stone MB. Sensitivity of bedside ultrasound and supine anteriorosterior chest radiographs for the identification of pneumothorax after blunt trauma - Academic Emergency Medicine (2010) 17:11-17.

Platz E, Goldflam K, Mennicke M et al. Comparison of Web-versus classroom-based basic ultrasonographic and EFAST training in 2 European hospitals - Ann Emerg Med (2010) 56: 660-7.

Kim DY, Yelle J, Lee AC et al. National Survey of Canadian General Surgery Program Directors Regarding Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma; Journal of Surgical Education (2009) 66:193-195.

Ma OJ, Gaddis G, Norvell JG et al. How Fast is the Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma Examination Learning Curve? Emergency Medicine Australasia (2008) 20:32-37.

Soldati G, Testa A, Sher S, et. al. Occult traumatic pneumothorax: diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasonography in the emergency department - Chest (2008) 133:204-211.

Nagdev A, Racht J. The Gastric Fulid Sign: an Unrecognized False-positive Finding During FAST Examinations. American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2008) 26:630.e5-630.e7.

Stengel D, Bauwens K, Sehouli J, Rademacher G, Mutze S et al.Emergency ultrasound-based algorithms for diagnosing blunt abdominal trauma. The Cochrane Collaboration (2008)

Helling TS, Wilson J, Augustosky K The utility of focused abdominal ultrasound in blunt abdominal trauma: a reappraisal - Am J Surg (2007) 194:728-733.

Kirkpatrick AW. Clinician-performed focused sonography for the resuscitation of trauma - Crit Care Med (2007) 35:S162-72.

Vance S. The FAST scan: are we improving the care of the trauma patient - Annals of Emergency Medicine (2007) 49(3):364-366.

Moylan M, Newgard CD, Ma OJ et al. Association Between a Positive ED FAST Examination and Theraputic Laparotomy in Normotensive Blunt Trauma Patients; The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2007) 33:265-271.

Melnicker LA, Leibner E, McKenney MG et al. Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Point-of-Care, Limited Ultrasonography for Trauma in the Emergency Department: The First Sonography Outcomes Assessment Program Trial; Annals of Emergency Medicine (2006) 48: 227-235.

Kirkpatrick AW, Breeck K, Wong J et al. The Potential of Handheld Trauma Sonography in the Air Medical Transport of the Trauma Victim; Air Medical Journal (2005) 24(1): 34-39.

Kirkpatrick AW, Sirois M, Laupland KB et al. Hand-held Thoracic Sonography for Detecting Post-Traumatic Pneumothoraces: The Extended Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma; The Journal of Trauma (2004) 57:288-95.

McKenney KL, McKenney MG, Cohn SM et al. Hemoperitoneum Score Helps Determine Need for Therapeutic Laparotomy; J Trauma (2001) 50:650-656.

Rozycki G, Feliciano D, Ochsner MG et al. The Role of Ultrasound in Patients with Possible Penetrating Cardiac Wounds: A Prospective Multicenter Study - J Trauma (1999)46(4)0:543-552.

Porter RS, Nester BA, Dalsey WC et al. Use of Ultrasound to Determine Need for Laparotomy in Trauma Patients; Annals of Emergency Medicine (1997) 29:323-330.

Han D, Razycki T, Schmidt J et. al. Ultrasound training during ATLS: an early start for surgical interns - The Journal of Trauma (1996) 41(2):208-213.


Riddell Jm Case A, Wopat R, et al. Sensitivity of emergency bedside ultrasound to detect hydronephrosis in patients with CT proven stones - Western Journal of Emergency Medicine (2014) 15(1):96-100.

Herbst MK, Rosenberg G, Daniels B et al. Effect of provider experience on clinician-performed ultrasonography for hydronephrosis in patients with suspected renal colic - Annals of Emergency Medicine (2014) 1-8.

Daignault MC, Saul T, Lewiss RE. Right flank pain: a case report of an interesting sonographic finding - Journal of Emergency Medicine (2013) 43(6):1059-1062.

Moak JH Lyons MS and Lindsell CJ. Bedside renal ultrasound in the evaluation of suspected uteterolithiasis - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012) 30:218-221.

Ripolles T, Martinez-Perez MJ, Vizuete J et al. Sonographic diagnosis of symptomatic ureteral calculi: usefullness of the twinkling artifact - Abdominal Imaging (2012)

Moore CL, Scoutt L. Sonography first for acute flank pain? - Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2012); 31:1703-1713.

Dalziel PJ, Noble VE. Bedside ultrasound and the assessment of renal colic: a review - Emergency Medicine Journal (2012).

Park YH Ku JH and Oh S. Accuracy of Post Void Residual Urine Volume Measurement Using a Portable Ultrasound Bladder Scanner with Real-time Pre Scan Imaging - Urology and Urodynamics (2011) 30:335-338.

Davis JE, Silverman M. Scrotal Emergencies Emerg Med Clin North Am (2011) 29(3); 469-484.

Goertz JK, Lotterman S. Can the degree of hydronephrosis on ultrasound predict kidney stone size? Am J Emerg Med (2010) 28: 813-6.

Cavorsi K, Prabhakar P, Kirby. Acute pyelonephritis, Ultrasound Quarterly (2010) 26:103.

Bormann JS, Moore C. Bedside ultrasound of a painful testicle: before and after manual detorsion by an emergency physician - Academic Emergency Medicine (2009)

Baumann BM, McCans K, Stahmer SA et al. Volumetric Bladder Ultrasound Performed by Trained Nurses Increases Catheterization Success in Pediatric Patients; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2008) 26:18-23.

Kartal M, Eray O, Erdogru T et al. Prospective validation of a current algorithm including bedside US performed by emergency physicians for patients with acute flank pain suspected for renal colic; Emergency Medicine Journal (2006) 23:341-344.

Gaspari RJ, Horst K. Emergency Ultrasound and Urinalysis in the Evaluation of Flank Pain; Academic Emergency Medicine (2005) 12: 1180-1184.

Mandavia DP, Pregerson B, Henderson SO. Ultrasonography of Flank Pain in the Emergency Department: Renal Cell Carcinoma as a Diagnostic Concern; The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2000) 18:83-86.

Inferior Vena Cava

Prekker ME, Scott NL, Hart D et. al. Point of care ultrasound to estimate central venous pressure: a comparison of three techniques - Critical Care Medicine (2013) 41.

Zengin S, Al B, Genc S, et al.  Role of inferior vena cava and right ventricular diameter in assessment of volume status: a comparative study - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2013) 31:763-767.

Corl K, Napoli AM, Gardiner F. Bedside sonographic measurement of the inferior vena cava caval index is a poor predictor of fluid responsiveness in emergency department patients - Emergency Medicine Australasia (2012) 24:534-539.

Weekes AJ, Lewis MR, Kahler et al. The effect of weight-based volume loading on the inferior vena cava in fasting subjects: a prospective randomized double-blinded trial - Academic Emergency Medicine (2012) 19:901-907.

Fields JM, Lee PA, Jenq KY et al. The Interrater reliabilty of inferior vena cava ultrasound by bedside clinicain sonographers in ED patients, Academic Emergency Medicine (2011) 18:98-101.

Dipti A, Soucy A, Surana A et. al. Role of interior vena cava diameter in assessment of volume status: a meta-analysis - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2011).

Nagdev A Merchant R and Tirado-Gonzalez A. Emergency Department Bedside Ultrasonographic Measurement of the Caval Index for Noninvasive Determination of Low Central Venous Pressure – Ann Emerg Med (2010) 55(3): 290-5.

Blehar DJ, Dickman E, Gaspari R. Identification of Congestive Heart Failure via Respiratory Variation of Inferior Vena Cava; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2009) 27:71-75.

Kosiak W, Swieton D, Piskunowicz M. Sonographic Inferior Vena Cava / Aorta Diameter Index, A New Approach to the Body Fluid Status Assessment in Children and Young Adults in Emergency Ultrasound. American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2008) 26:320-5.

Marik PE, Baram M, Vahid B. Does central venous pressure predict fluid responsiveness - Chest (2008) 134;172-178.

Lyon M Blaivas M and Brannam L. Sonographic measurement of the inferior vena cava as a marker of blood loss – Am J Emerg Med (2005) 23(1): 45-50.

Barbier C, Loubieres Y, Schmit C et al. Respiratory changes in inferior vena cava diameter are helpful in predicting fluid responsiveness in ventilated septic patients, Intensive Care Medicine (2001) 30:1740-1746.


Anderson KL, Fields M, Panebianco NL et al. Inter-rater reliability of quanfifying pleural B-lines using multiple counting methods -Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2013) 32:115-120.

Ku BS, Fields JM, Carr B, et al.  Clinican-performed bedside ultrasound for the diagnosis of traumatic pneumothorax - Western Journal of Emergency Medicine (2013)

Raja AS, Jacobus CH. How accurate is ultrasonography for excluding pneumothorax? - Annals of Emergency Medicine (2013) 61(2):207-208.

Volpicelli G, Elbarbary M, Blaivas M et al. International evidence-based recommendations for point-of-care lung ultrasound; Intensive Care Medicine (2012) 38: 577-591.

Blaivas M. Lung Ultrasound in Evaluation of Pneumonia; Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2012) 31: 823-826.

Tsung J, Kessler DO, Shah VP. Prospective application of clinician-performed lung ultrasonography during the 2009 H1N1 influenza A pandemic: distinguishing viral from bacterial pneumonia – Critical Ultrasound Journal (2012) 4:16.

Mantuani D, Nagdev A, Stone M. Three-view bedside ultrasound for the differentiation of acute respiratory distress syndrome from cardiogenic pulmonary edema; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012) 30(7): 1324.e1-4.

Breitkreutz R, Seibel A, Zechner PM et al. Ultrasound-guided evaluation of lung sliding for widespread use; Resuscitation (2012) 83: 273-274.

Zanobetti M, Poggioni C, Pini R. Can Chest Ultrasonography Replace Standard Chest Radiography for Evaluation of Acute Dyspnea in the ED; Chest (2011) 139: 1140-1147.

Manson WC, Bonz JW, Carmody K et. al. Identification of sonographic B lines with linear transducer predicts elevated B type natriuretic peptide level - Western Journal of Emergency Medicine (2011) 12(1): 102-106.

Via F, Lichtenstein D, Mojoli F. Whole lung lavage: a unique model for ultrasound assessment of lung aeration changes. Intensive Care Medicine; (2010) 36:999-1007.

Stone MB, Chilstrom M, Chase K, Lichtenstein D. The heart point sign: description of a new ultrasound finding suggesting pneumothorax; Academic Emergency Medicine (2010) 17(11): e149-50.

Liteplo AS, Murray AF, Kimberly HH et al. Real-time resolution of sonographic B-lines in a patient with pulmonary edema on continuous positive airway pressure; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2010) 28: 541.e5-541.e8.

Turk F, Kurt AB, Saglam S. Evaluation by ultrasound of traumatic rib fractures missed by radiography; Emergency Radiology (2010) 17: 473-477.

Lichtenstein D. Should lung ultrasonography be more widely used in the assessment of acute respiratory disease; Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine (2010) 4(5): 533-8.

Zechner PM, Aichinger G, Rigaud M et al. Prehospital lung ultrasound in the distinction between pulmonary edema and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2010) 28: 389.e1-389.e2.

Duncan DR, Morgenthaler TI, Ryu JH et al. Reducing iatrogenic risk in thoracentesis: establishing best practice via experiential training in a zero-risk environment - Chest (2009) 135(5):1315–20.

Parlamento S, Copetti R, Di Bartolomeo S. Evaluation of lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of pneumonia in the ED; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2009) 27: 379-384.

Liteplo AS, Marill KA, Villen T et al. Emergency Thoracic Ultrasound in the Differentiation of the Etiology of Shortness of Breath (ETUDES): Sonographic B-lines and N-terminal Pro-brain-type Natriuretic Peptide in Diagnosing Congestive Heart Failure; Academic Emergency Medicine (2009) 16: 201-210.

Lichtenstein DA Meziere GA. Relevance of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute respiratory failure: the BLUE protocol - Chest (2008) 134:117-125.

Soldati G, Testa A, Sher S et al. Occult Traumatic Pneumothorax: Diagnostic Accuracy of Lung Ultrasonography in the Emergency Department; Chest (2008) 133: 204-211.

Volpicelli G, Caramello V, Cardinale L et al. Bedside ultrasound of the lung for the monitoring of acute decompensated heart failure; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2008) 26: 585-591.

Beaulieu Y. Specific skill set and goals of focused echocardiography for critical care physicians - Critical Care Medicine (2007) 35:S144-S149.

Reibig A, Copetti R, Mathis G et. al. Lung ultrasound in the diagnosis and follow up of community acquired pneumonia. A prospective multicentre diagnostic accuracy study. Identifier: NCT00808457.

Picano E, Frassi F, Agricola E et al. Ultrasound lung comets: a clinically useful sign of extravascular lung water; Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography (2006) 19(3): 356-63.

Balik M, Plasil P, Waldauf P et al. Ultrasound estimation of volume of pleural fluid in mechanically ventilated patients; Intensive Care Medicine (2006) 32: 318-321.

Volpicelli G, Mussa A, Garofalo G et al. Bedside lung ultrasound in the assessment of alveolar-interstitial syndrome; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2006) 24: 689-696.

Agricola E, Bove T, Oppizzi M et al. “Ultrasound Comet-Tail Images”: A Marker Of Pulmonary Edema A Comparative Study With Wedge Pressure And Extravascular Lung Water; Chest (2005) 127: 1690-1695.

Simon BC, Paolinetti L. Two Cases Where Bedside Ultrasound Was Able to Distinguish Pulmonary Bleb From Pneumothorax; The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2005) 29(2): 201-205.

Knudtson JL, Dort JM, Helmer SD, Smith RS. Surgeon-Performed Ultrasound for Pneumothorax in the Trauma Suite; The Journal of Trauma (2004) 56: 527-530.

Rowan KR, Kirkpatrick AW, Liu D et al. Traumatic Pneumothorax Detection with Thoracic US: Correlation with Chest Radiography and CT—Initial Experience; Radiology (2002) 225(1): 210-214.

Kirkpatrick AW, Ng AKT, Dulchavsky SA et al. Sonographic Diagnosis of a Pneumothorax Inapparent on Plain Radiography: Confirmation by Computed Tomography; The Journal of Trauma (2001) 50: 750-752.

Lichtenstein D, Meziere G. A lung ultrasound sign allowing bedside distinction between pulmonary edema and COPD: the comet-tail artifact; Intensive Care Medicine (1998) 24(12): 1331-1334.

Ma OJ, Mateer JR. Trauma Ultrasound Examination Versus Chest Radiography in the Detection of Hemothorax; Annals of Emergency Medicine (1997) 29: 312-316.

Lichtenstein DA, Menu Y. A Bedside Ultrasound Sign Ruling Out Pneumothorax in the Critically Ill; Chest (1995) 108(5): 1345-1348.

Non-traumatic Abdomen

Heller T, Wallrauch C, Goblirsch S, Brunetti E. Focused assessment with sonography for HIV-associated tuberculosis (FASH): a short protocol and a pictorial review - Cricital Ultrasound Journal (2012) 4:21.

Benter T, Kluhs L, Teichgraber U. Sonography of the Spleen. J Ultrasound Med (2011) 30:1281–1293.

Jang TB, Schindler D, Kaji AH. Bedside Ultrasonography for the Detection of Small Bowel Obstruction in the Emergency Department; Emerg Med J (2011) 28:676-678.

van Randen A, Lameris W, van Es HW et al. A Comparison of the Accuracy of Ultrasound and Computer Tomography in Common Diagnosis Causing Acute Abdominal Pain – Eur Radiol (2011) 21:1535-1545.

Hernanz-Schulman M. CT and US in the Diagnosis of Appendicitis: An Argument for CT; Radiology (2010) 255:3-7.

Strouse PJ. CT and US in the Diagnosis of Appendicitis: An Argument for US; Radiology (2010) 255:8-13.

Testa A, Lauritano C, Giannuzzi R et al. The Role of Emergency Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Acute Non-traumatic Epigastric Pain. Intern Emerg Med (2010) 5:401-409.

van Randen A, Lameris W, van Es HW et al. Profiles of US and CT imaging features with a high probability of appendicitis, Eur Radiol (2010) 20:1657-1666.

Perlas A, Chan VW, Lupu CM et al. Ultrasound assessment of gastric content and volume. Anesthesiology (2009) 111: 82-9.

Wu T, Leech S, Rosenberg M et al. Ultrasound can accurately guide gastrostomy tube replacement and confirm proper tube placement at the bedside. Journal of Emergency Medicine (2009) 36(3): 280-284.

Fox JC, Hunt MJ, Zlidenny AM et al. A retrospective analsysis of emergency department ultrasound for acute appendicitis - The California Journal of Emergency Medicine (2007) VIII:41-45.

Jones R. Recognition of Pneumoperitoneum Using Bedside Ultrasound in Critically Ill Patients Presenting with Acute Abdominal Pain; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2007) 25:838-841.

Jamadar DA, Jacobson JA, Morag Y et al. Characteristic Locations of Inguinal and Anterior Abdominal Wall Hernias: Sonographic Appearances and Identification of Clinical Pitfalls. AJR (2007) 188:1356-1364.

Baker JB, Mandavia D, Swadron SP. Diagnosis of Diverticulitis by Bedside Ultrasound in the Emergency Department; The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2006) 30:327-329.

Karahan OI, Kurt A, Yikilmaz A et al. New method for the detection of intraperitoneal free air by sonography: Scissors Maneuver - Journal of Clinical Ultrasound (2004) 32(8): 381-385.

Bland KI. Abdominal Sonography for the Diagnosis of Bowel Obstruction; Annals of Surgery (1996) 29:235-236.

Ogata M,Mateer JR, Condon RE. Prospective Evaluation of Abdominal Sonography for the Diagnosis of Bowel Obstruction; Annals of Surgery (1996) 29:237-241.


Ko JKY, Cheung VYT Time to revisit the human chorionic gonadotropnin discriminatory level in the management of pregnancy of unknonwn location - Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2014) 33:465-471.

Asch E, Shah S, Kang T el al.  Use of pelvic computed tomography and sonography in women of reproductive age in the emergency department  – Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2013) 32:1181-1187.

Andreotti RF, Harvey SM. Sonographic evaluation of acute pelvic pain - Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2012) 31:1713-1718.

Mallin M, Dawson M, Schroeder E, et al. Prospective outcomes of pregnant ED patients with documented fetal cardiac activity on ultrasound - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012) 30:472-475.

Egan DJ, Lewiss RE. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy presenting as a failed termination of pregnancy - Emergency Medicine Australasia (2012) 24;573-576.

Hahn SA, Lavonas EJ, Mace SE. Clinical policy: critical issues in the initial evaluation and management of patients presenting to the emergency department in early pregnancy – Annals of Emergency Medicine (2012) 60:381-390.

Doubilet PM, Benson CB. Further evidence against the reliability of the human chorionic gonadotropin discriminatory level – Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2011) 30:1637-1642.

Saul T, Sonson J. Molar Pregnancy; The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2011) 40(2): e39-e40.

Wang R, Reynolds TA, West HH et al. Use of a BHCG discriminatory zone with bedside pelvic ultrasound - Annals of Emergency Medicine (2011) 58:12-20.

Juliano ML, Sauter BM. Fetal outcomes in first trimester pregnancies with an indeterminate ultrasound - Journal of Emergency Medicine (2011)

Moschos E, Twickler D. Intrauterine devices in early pregnancy: findings on ultrasound and clinical outcomes; American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology (2011) 204: 427.e1-6.

Seymour A, Abebe H, Pavlik D, Sacchetti A. Pelvic examination is unnecessary in pregnant patients with a normal bedside ultrasound; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2010) 28: 213-216.

Little EA, Moussavian B, Horrow MM. Cesarean Delivery Scar Ectopic Pregnancy; Ultrasound Quarterly (2010) 26(2): 107-109.

Jang TB, Ruggeri W, Dyne P, Kaji AH. Learning Curve of Emergency Physicians Using Emergency Bedside Sonography for Symptomatic First-Trimester Pregnancy; Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2010) 29: 1423-1428.

Stein JC, Wang R, Adler N et al. Emergency Physician Ultrasonography for Evaluating Patients at Risk for Ectopic Pregnancy: A Meta-Analysis; Annals of Emergency Medicine (2010) 56(6): 674-683.

Shah S, Teismann N, Zaia B et al. Accuracy of emergency physicians using ultrasound to determine gestational age in pregnant women; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2010) 28: 834-838.

Saul T. Ectopic Pregnancy and Tubo-Ovarian Abscess; The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2010) 39(4): 499-500.

Rosenweig J, Birkhahn RH. Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy Case Report: Findings for the Bedside Sonographer; The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2009) 36(1): 34-36.

Seffah JD, Adanu RMK. Obstetric Ultrasonography in Low-income Countries; Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology (2009) 52(2): 250-255.

Saul T, Sonson JM. Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2009) 27: 250.e3-250.e4.

Sokalska A, Timmerman D, Testa AC et al. Diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound examination for assigning a specific diagnosis to adnexal masses; Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol (2009) 34: 462-470.

Rana KA, Patel PS. Complete Uterine Inversion; Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2009) 28: 1719-1722.

Barbera AF, Pombar X, Perugino G et al. A new method to assess fetal head descent in labor with transperineal ultrasound; Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol (2009) 33: 313-319.

Barnhart KT. Ectopic Pregnancy; The New England Journal of Medicine (2009) 361(4): 379-387.

Harris RD, Marks WM. Compact Ultrasound for Improving Maternal and Perinatal Care in Low-Resource Settings; Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2009) 28: 1067-1076.

Vandermeer FQ, Wong-You-Cheong JJ. Imaging of Acute Pelvic Pain; Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology (2009) 52(1): 2-20.

Tayal VS, Bullard M, Swanson DR et al. ED endovaginal pelvic ultrasound in nonpregnant women with right lower quadrant pain; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2008) 26: 81-85.

Adhikari S, Blaivas M, Lyon M. Role of bedside transvaginal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of tubo-ovarian abscess in the emergency department; The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2008) 34(4): 429-433.

Tayal VS, Crean CA, Norton HJ et al. Prospective Comparative Trial of Endovaginal Sonographic Bimanual Examination Versus Traditional Digital Bimanual Examination in Nonpregnant Women With Lower Abdominal Pain With Regard to Body Mass Index Classification; Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2008) 27: 1171-1177.

Tan BP, Ong CL. Ultrasonographical diagnosis of acute gynaecological pain; Singapore Medicine Journal (2008) 49(6): 511-516.

Kamaya A, Shin L, Chen B, Desser TS. Emergency Gynecologic Imaging; Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI (2008) 29(5): 353-368.

Adhikari S, Blaivas M, Lyon M. Diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy using bedside transvaginal ultrasonography in the ED: a 2-year experience; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2007) 25: 591-596.

Moore C, Todd WM, O’Brien E, Lin H. Free Fluid in Morison’s Pouch on Bedside Ultrasound Predicts Need for Operative Intervention in Suspected Ectopic Pregnancy; Academic Emergency Medicine (2007) 14: 755-758.

Sheiner E, Shoham-Vardi I, Abramowicz JS. What Do Clinical Users Know Regarding Safety of Ultrasound During Pregnancy; Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2007) 26: 319-325.

Ang ESBC Jr, Gluncic V, Duque A et al. Prenatal exposure to ultrasound waves impacts neuronal migration in mice; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2006) 103(34): 12903-12910.

Eyvazzadeh AD, Levine D. Imaging of Pelvic Pain in the First Trimester of Pregnancy; Radiologic Clinics of North America (2006) 44: 863-877.

Newnham JP, Doherty DA et al. Effects of repeated prenatal ultrasound examinations on childhood outcome up to 8 years of age: follow-up of a randomised controlled trial; Lancet (2004) 364: 2038-44.

Somers MP, Spears M, Maynard AS, Syverud SA. Ruptured Heterotopic Pregnancy Presenting With Relative Bradycardia in a Woman Not Receiving Reproductive Assistance; Annals of Emergency Medicine (2004) 43(3): 382-385.

Dart RG, Burke G, Dart L. Subclassification of Indeterminate Pelvic Ultrasonography: Prospective Evaluation of the Risk of Ectopic Pregnancy; Annals of Emergency Medicine (2002) 39(4): 382-388.

Goldstein SR. Gynecologic ultrasound. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2002) 21: 489-492.

Blaivas M, Sierzenski P, Plecque D, Lambert M. Do Emergency Physicians Save Time When Locating a Live Intrauterine Pregnancy with Bedside Ultrasonography; Academic Emergency Medicine (2000) 7: 988-993.

Dart RG, Kaplan B, Cox C. Transvaginal Ultrasound in Patients With Low Beta-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Values: How Often Is the Study Diagnostic; Annals of Emergency Medicine (1997) 30(2): 135-140.


Vrablik ME, Snead GR, Minnigan HJ, Kirschner JM, Emmett TW, Seupaul RA. The diagnostic accuracy of bedside ocular ultrasonography for the diagnosis of retinal detachment: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Annals of Emergency Medicine (2014)

Teismann N, Tenaghan P, Nolan R et al. Point-of-care Ocular Ultraound to Detect Optic Disk Swelling - Academic Emergency Medicine (2013) 20:920-925.

Quayyum H, Ramiakhan S. Can ocular ultrasound predict intracranial hypertension? A pilot diagnositic accuracy evaluation in an UK emergency deparmtnet - European Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012).

Leo M, Carmody K. Sonography Assessment of Acute Ocular Pathology - Ultrasound Clin (2011) 6(2); 227-234.

Major R, Girling S, Boyle A. Ultrasound measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter in patients with a clinical suspicion of intracranial pressure - Emergency Medicine Journal (2011) 28:679-681.

Harries A, Shah S, Teismann N et. al. Ultrasound Assessment of Extraocular Movements and Pupillary Light Reflex in Ocular Trauma - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2010) 28:956-959.

Stone M. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Papilledema and Increased Intracranial Pressure in Pseudotumor Cerebri - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2009) 27:376.

Moretti R, Pizzi B, Cassini F et. al. Reliability of Optic Nerve Ultrasound for the Evaluation of Patients with Spontaneous Intracranial Hemorrhage - Neurocritical Care (2009) 11: 406-410

Le A, Hoehn ME, Smith ME et. al. Bedside sonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter as a predictor of increased intracranial pressure in children - Ann Emerg Med (2009) 53(6): 785-91.

Kimberly HH, Shah S, Marill K et al. Correlation of optic nerve sheath diameter with direct measurement of intracranial pressure - Academic Emergency Medicine (2008) 15: 201-204.

Geeraerts T, Launey Y, Martin L et. al. Ultrasonography of the Optic Nerve Sheath May be Useful for Detecting Raised Intracranial Pressure After Severe Brain Injury - Intensive Care Medicine (2007) 33:1704-1711

Sawyer NA. Ultrasound Imaging of Penetrating Ocular Trauma - The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2006) 36(2): 181-182.

Tayal VS, Neulander M, Norton HJ et. al. Emergency Department Sonographic Measurement of Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter to Detect Findings of Increased Intracranial Pressure in Adult Head Injury Patients - Annals of Emergency Medicine (2007) 49(4): 508-514.

Chiao L, Sharipov S, Sargsyan AE. Ocular Examination for Trauma: Cinical Ultrasound Aboard the International Space Station - The Journal of Trauma (2005) 58(5):885-889.

Blaivas M, Theodoro D, Sierzenski PR. Elevated Intracranial Pressure Detected by Bedside Emergency Ultrasonography of the Optic Nerve Sheath - Academic Emergency Medicine (2003) 10:376-381.

Pediatric Ultrasound

Elikashvilli I, Tay ET, Tsung JW. The effect of point-of-care ultrasound on emergency department length of stay and CT utilization in children with suspected appendicitis - Academic Emergency Medicine (2013) 21:163-170.

Sivitz AB, Tejani C, Cohen SG. Evaluation of Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis by Pediatric Emergency Physician Sonography - Academic Emergency Medicine (2013) 20:646-651.

Salmon M, Doniger SJ. Ingested Foreign Bodies, A case series demonstrating a novel application of point of care ultrasonography in children - Pediatric Emergency Care (2013) 3(29):870-873.

Gingrich AS, Saul T, Lewiss RE.  Point-of-care ultrasound in a resource limited setting:  diagnosing intussusception - The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2013)

Russell WS, Schuh AM, Hill JG, et al.  Clinical practice guidelines for pediatric appendicitis evaluation can decrease computed tomography utilization while maintaining diagnostic accuracy – Pediatric Emergency Care (2013) 29:568-573.

Sivitz AB, Tejani C, Cohen SG.  Evaluation of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis by pediatric emergency physician sonography – Academic Emergency Medicine (2013) 20.

Rabiner JE, Friedman LM, Knine H.  Accuracy of point-of-care ultrasound for diagnosis of skull fractures in children – Pediatrics (2013) 131(6): 1757-1764. 

Vieira RL, Bachur R. Bedside ultrasound in pediatric practice - Pediatrics (2014) 133(1):1-3.

Frenkel O, Mansour K, Fischer JWJ. Ultrasound Guided Femoral Nerve Block for Pain Control in an Infant with a Femur Fracture Due to Nonaccidental Trauma. Pediatr Emer Care (2012) 28:183-184.

Tsung JW, Kessler DO, Shah VP Prospective application of clinican performed lung ultrasonography during the 2009 H1N1 influenza A pandemic. Critical Ultrasound Journal (2012) 4:16.

Stewart JK, Olcott EW, Jeffrey RB. Sonography for appendicitis: Nonvisualization of the appendix is an indication for active clinical observation rather than direct referral for computed tomograph - Journal of Clinical Ultrasound (2012).

Ayaz U, Dilli A, Ayaz S et. al. Ultrasonographic findings of intussusception in pediatric cases - Medical Ultrasonography (2011) 13(4):272-276.

Cross KP. Bedside Ultrasound for Pediatric Long Bone Fractures. CPEM (2011) 12: 27-36.

Longjohn M, Pershad J. Point-of-Care Echocardiography by Pediatric Emergency Physicians CPEM (2011) 12: 37-42.

Ramirez-Schrempp D, Vinci RJ, Liteplo AS. Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Skull Fractures in the Pediatric Emergency department. Pediatr Emer Care (2011) 27:312-314.

Marin J. Novel Applications in Pediatric Emergency Ultrasound. CPEM (2011) 12: 53-64.

Werner H, Levy J. Procedural Applications of Bedside Emergency Ultrasound; Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine (2011) 12(1): 43-52.

Chang TP, Russell SA. Perforated Appendicitis and Appendicolith in a Child Presenting as Intussusception. Pediatr Emer Care (2011) 27:635-638.

Fox JC, Boysen M, Gharahbaghian L et al. Test Characterisitics of Focused Assessment of Sonography for Trauma for Clnically Significant Abdominal Free Fluid in Pediatric Blunt Abdominal Trauma- Academic Emergency Medicine (2011) 18:477-482.

Halm BM, Boychuk RB, Franke AA. Diagnosis of intussusception using point-of-care ultrasound in the pediatric ED: a case report - Am J Emerg Med (2011) 29:354.e1-3.

Munden MM, Hill JG. Ultrasound of the Acute Abdomen in Children. Ultrasound Clin (2010) 5:113-135.

Vieira RL, Levy JA. Bedside ultrasonography to identify hip effusions in pediatric patients. Ann Emerg Med (2010) 55: 284-9.

Abo A, Chen L, Johnston P et al. Positioning for lumbar puncture in children evaluated by bedside ultrasound. Pediatrics (2010) 125:e1149-e1153.

Aouad MT, Kanazi GE, Abdallah FW et al. Femoral vein cannulation performed by residents: a comparison between ultrasound guided and landmark technique in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery. Anesthesia (2010) 111:724-8.

Tsung J, Raio C, Ramirez-Schrempp D et al. Point-of-care ultrasound diagnosis of pediatric cholecystitis in the ED. Am J Emerg Med (2010) 28: 338-42.

Froehlich CD, Rigby MR, Rosenberg ES et al. Ultrasound-guided central venous catheter placement decreases complications and decreases placement attempts compared with the landmark technique in patients in a pediatric intensive care unit. Crit Care Med (2009) 37: 1090-6.

Ramarajan N, Krishnamoorthi R, Barth R et al. An Interdisciplinary Initiative to Reduce Radiation Exposure: Evaluation of Appendicitis in a Pediatric Emergency Department with Clinical Assessment Supported by a Staged Ultrasound and Computed Tomography Pathway; Academic Emergency Medicine (2009) 16:1258-1265.

Malcom GE, Raio CC, DelRiosM et al. Feasibility of Emergency Physician Diagnosis of Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis Using Point-of-care Ultrasound; A Multi-Center Case Series. Journal of Emergency Medicine (2009) 37:283-286.

Dubois J, Rypens F, Garel L et al. Incidence of deep vein thrombosis related to peripherally inserted central catheters in children and adolescents. CMAJ (2007) 177: 1185-90.

Louie JP. Essential diagnosis of abdominal emergencies in the first year of life. Emerg Med Clin N Am (2007) 25: 1009-40.

Policies, Protocols, Training and Guidelines

Lewiss RE, Hoffmann B, Beaulieu Y, Phelan M. Point-of-care ultrasound education. The increasing role of simulation and multimedia resources - Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2014)33:27-32.

Lawrence MW, Blanks J, Ayala R et al. Hospital wide survey of bacterial contamination of point-of-care ultrasound probes and coupling gel - Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2014)33:457-462.

Lewiss RE, Tayal VS, Hoffmann B, Kendall J, Liteplo AS, Moak JH, Panebianco N, Noble VE. The core content of clinical ultrasonography fellowship training - Academic EmergencyMedicine (2014)21:456-461.

Lewiss RE, Pearl M, Nomura JT et al. CORD-AEUS: Consensus Document for the Emergency Ultrasound Milestone Project - Academic Emergency Medicine (2013)20:740-745.

Chisholm CB, Dodge WR, Balise RR, Williams SR, Gharahbagnian L, Beraud AS. Focused cardiac ultrasound training: How much is enough? -The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2013) 44(4): 818-822.

Adhikari S. High frequency transducers for point of care ultrasound applications: what is the optimal frequency range? - Internal and Emergency Medicine (2013)

Benninger B, Corbett R, Delamarter T. Invasive procedure to first-year medical students using a novel finger transducer - Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2013) 32:659-664.

Vieira RL, Hsu D, Nagler J et al. Pediatric emergency medicine fellow training in ultrasound: consensus educational guidelines – Academic Emergency Medicine (2013) 20:300-306.

Jeppesen KM, Bahner DP. Teaching bedside sonography using peer mentoring - J Ultrasound Med (2012) 31:455-459.

Sweetman GM, Crawford G, Hird K, et al. The benefits and limitations of using ultrasonography to supplement anatomical understanding – Anatomical Sciences Education (2012)

Haydar SA, Moore ET, Higgins GL et al. Effect of bedside ultrasonography on the certainty of physicain clinical decisionmaking in emergency department patients - Annals of Emergency Medicine (2012) 60:346-358.

Brown B, Adhikari S, Marx J et. al. Introduction of ultrasound into gross anatomy curriculum: perceptions of medical students - The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012).

Bahner DP, Jasne A, Boore S et. al. The Ultrasound Challenge, A novel approach to medical student ultrasound education - Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2012) 31:2013-2016.

Blaivas M, Pawl R. Analysis of lawsuits filed against emergency physicians for point of care emergency ultrasound examination performance and interpretation over a 20 year period - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012) 30:338-341.

Goodman TR, Scoutt LM, Brink JA. A survey of emergency physician performed ultrasound: Implications for academic radiology departments - JACR (2011) 8:631-634.

Moore CL, Copel JA. Point of care ultrasonography. New England Jouranl of Medicine (2011) 364(8): 749-757.

Frazee B, Fahimi J, Lambert L et. al. Emergency department ultrasonographic probe contamination and experimental model of probe disifection - Annals of Emergency Medicine (2011) 58:56-63.

International expert statement on training standards for critical care ultrasonography - Intensive Care Medicine (2011) 37:1077-1083.

Fox JC, Richardson AG, Lopez S et al. Implications and Approach to Incidental Findings in Live Ultrasound Models - West J Emerg Med (2011) 12:472-4.

Sippel S, Muruganandan K, Levine A, Shah S. Review article: ulse of ultrasound in the developing worl - International Journal of Emerg Med (2011) 4(72)

Mendiratta-Lala M, Williams T, de Quadros N et al. The Use of a Simulation Center to Improve Resident Proficiency in Performing Ultrasound-Guided Procedures - Acad Radiol (2010) 17:535-540.

Eisen LA, Leung S, Gallagher A et. al. Barriers to ultrasound training in critical care fellowships - Critical Care Medicine (2010) 38: 1978-1983.

Ahern M, Mallin MP, Weitzel S et. al. Variability in ultrasound education among emergency medicine residents - Western Journal of Emergency Medicine (2010) 9 (4): 314-318.

Wood MW, Romine LE, Lee YK et al. Spectral doppler signature waveforms in ultrasound - Ultrasound Quarterly (2010) 26:83-99.

Ivanusic J, Cowie B, Barrington M. Undergraduate Student Perceptions of the Use of Ultrasonography in the Study of "Living Anatomy" - Anat Sci Educ (2010) 3:318-322.

Perera P Mailhot T and Riley D. The RUSH exam: Rapid Ultrasound in SHock in the evaluation of the critically Ill - Emerg Med Clin North Am – (2010) 28(10): 29-56.

Atkinson PRT McAuley DJ and Kendall RJ. Abdominal and Cardiac Evaluation with Sonography in Shock (ACES): an Approach by Emergency Physicians for the use of Ultrasound in Patients with Undifferentiated Hypotension – Emergency Medicine Journal (2009) 26: 87-91.

Mayo PH, Beaulieu Y, Doelken P et. al. American college of chest physicians statement on competence in critical care ultrasonography - Chest (2009) 135:1050-1060.

Durbin CG. How to read a scientific research paper - Respiratory Care (2009) 54(10):1366-1371.

Singer AJ, Hollander JE. How to Write a Manuscript - J Emerg Med (2009) 36, 89-93.

Resnick J, Hoffenberg S, Tayal V et al. Ultrasound Coding and Reimbursement Document 2009 - Emergency Ultrasound Section American College of Emergency Physicians.

Soremekun OA, Noble VE, Liteplo AS et al. The Financial Impact of Emergency Ultrasound - Academic Emergency Medicine (2009) 16:674-680.

Emergency ultrasound guidelines. American College of Emergency Physicians - Ann Emerg Med (2009) 53: 550-70.

Akhtar S, Theodoro D, Gaspari R et al. Resident Training in Emergency Ultrasound: Consensus Recommendations from the 2008 Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors Conference - Academic Emergency Medicine (2009) 16:S32-S36.

Chalumeau-Lemoine L, Baudel JL, Das V et al. Results of Short-term Training of Naive Physicians in Focused General Ultrasonography in an Intensive Care Unit - Intensive Care Medicine (2009) 35:1767-1771.

Ten Eyck RP, Tews M, Ballester JM. Improved Medical Student Satisfaction and Test Performance with a Simulation Based Emergency Medicine Curriculum - Ann Emerg Med (2009) 54:684-691.

Wang EE, Quinones J, Fitch MT, et al. Developing Technical Expertise in Emergency Medicine - The Role of Simulation in Procedural Skill Acquisition - Academic Emergency Medicine (2008) 15:1046-1057.

Cook T, Hunt P, Hoppman R. Emergency Medicine Leads the Way for Training Medical Studnts in Clinician Based Ultrasound: A Radical Paradigm Shift in Patient Imaging - Academic Emergency Medicine (2007) 14, 558-561.

Hoffenberg S, Goldstein J. Emergency Ultrasound Coding and Reimbursement Update (2007)

Chenkin J, Lee S, Huynh T et. al. Procedures can be learned on the web: a randomized study of ultrasound guided vascular access training - Academic Emergency Medicine (2008) 15:949-954.

Kendall JL, Hoffenberg SR, Smith RS. History of Emergency and Critical Care Ultrasound: The Evolution of a New Imaging Paradigm - Crit Care Med (2007) 35:S126-S130.)

Neri L Storti E and Lichtenstein D. Toward an Ultrasound Curriculum for Critical Care Medicine - Critical Care Medicine (2007) 35(5): S290-304.

Ma OJ, Norvell JG, Subramanian S. Ultrasound applications in mass casualties and extreme environments; Critical Care Medicine (2007) 35(5): S275-S279.

Moore C Molina A and Lin H. Ultrasonography in community emergency departments in the United States: access to ultrasonography performed by consultants and status of emergency physician-performed ultrasonography – Ann Emerg Med (2006) 47(2): 147-53.

Lapostolle F, Petrovic T, Lenoir G et al. Usefulness of hand-held ultrasound devices in out-of-hospital diagnosis performed by emergency physicians; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2006) 24: 237-242.

Ultrasound Training Recommendations for Medical and Surgical Specialities - The Royal College of Radiologists (January, 2005)

Cardenas E. Emergency Medicine Ultrasound Policies and Reimbursement Guidelines - Emerg Med Clin N Am (2004) 22:829-838.

Heegeman DJ, Kieke B.  Learning Curves, credentialing and the need for ultrasound fellowships - Acad Emerg Med (2003) 10:404-405.

Costantino TG, Satz WA, Stahmer SA. Predictors of success in emergency medicine ultrasound education - Acad Emerg Med (2003)10:180-183.

Rose J Bair A and Mandavia D. The UHP Ultrasound Protocol: A Novel Ultrasound Approach to the Empiric Evaluation of the Undifferentiated Hypotensive Patient – Am J Emerg Med (2001) 19(4): 299-302.

Miller G. the assessment of clinical skils, competence, performance - Academic Medicine (1990) 65(9): S63-S67.


Peterson MA, Pisupati D, Heyming TW et al. Ultrasound for Routine Lumbar Puncture - Academic Emergency Medicine (2014) 21:130-136.

Minardi JJ, Lander OM. Septic Hip Arthritis: Diagnosis and Arthrocentesis Using Bedside Ultrasound - Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012) 43(2):316-318.

Patel MD, Joshi SD. Abnormal preprocedural international normalized ratio and platelet counts are not associated with increased bleeding complcations after ultrasound guided thoracentesis - AJR (2011)197:164-168.

Salz TO, Wilson SR, Liebmann O, Price DD. An initial description of a sonographic sign that verifies intrathoracic chest tube placement; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2010) 28: 626-630.

Gadsden J, McCally C and Hadzic A. Monitoring during peripheral nerve blockade - Current Opinions in Anesthesiology (2010) 23: 656-661.

Hong BY, Lim SH, Cho YR et al. Detection of Knee Effusion by Ultrasonography: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (2010) 89: 715-721.

Tsung JW, Blaivas M, Stone MB. Feasibility of point-of-care colour Doppler ultrasound confirmation of intraosseous needle placement during resuscitation; Resuscitation (2009) 80: 665-668.

Ferre RM, Sweeney TW. Emergency physicians can easily obtain ultrasound images of anatomical landmarks relevant to lumbar puncture; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2007) 25: 291-296.

Nomura JT, Leech SJ, Shenbagamurthi S, et. al. A randomized controlled trial of ultrasound assisted lumbar puncture - J Ultrasound Med (2007) 26: 1341-1348.

Crystal CS, Miller MA, Young SE. Ultrasound Guided Hematoma Block: A Novel Use of Ultrasound in the Traumatized Patient; The Journal of Trauma (2007) 62(2): 532-533.

Tayal VS, Nicks BA, Norton HJ. Emergency ultrasound evaluation of symptomatic nontraumatic pleural effusions; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2006) 24: 782-786.

Nazeer SR, Dewbre H, Miller AH. Ultrasound-assisted paracentesis performed by emergency physicians vs the traditional technique: a prospective, randomized study; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2005) 23: 363-367.

Barnes TW, Morgenthaler TI, Olson EJ et al. Sonographically Guided Thoracentesis and Rate of Pneumothorax; Journal of Clinical Ultrasound (2005) 33: 442-446.

Blaivas M. Emergency Diagnostic Paracentesis to Determine Intraperitoneal Fluid Identiy Discovered on Bedside Ultrasound of Unstable Patients; The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2005) 29(4): 461-465.

Macedo W, Sturmann K, Kim JM, Kang J. Ultrasonographic Guidance of Transvenous Pacemaker Insertion in the Emergency Department: A Report of Three Cases; The Journal of Emergency Medicine (1999) 17(3): 491-496.

Ma OJ, Mateer JA. Trauma Ultrasound Examination Versus Chest Radiography in the Detection of Hemothorax; Annals of Emergency Medicine (1997) 29: 312-316.

Regional Anesthesia

Lippert SC, Nagdev A, Stone M et al. Pain control in disaster settings: a role for ultrasound-guided nerve blocks – Annals of Emergency Medicine (2012).

Herring AA, Stone MB, Nagdev AD. Ultrasound guided abdominal wall nerve blocks in the ED - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012) 30: 759-764.

Haines L, Dickman E, Ayvazyan S et al. Ultrasound Guided Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block For Hip Fractures in the Emergency Department; The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012) 43(4): 692-697.

Frenkel O, Herring AA, Fischer J et al. Supracondylar radial nerve block for treatment of distal radius fractures in the emergency department – Journal of Emergency Medicine (2011) 41(4):386-388.

Herring AA, Stone MB, Fischer J, Frenkel O, Chiles K et al. . Ultrasound-guided distal popliteal sciatic nerve block for ED anesthesia - Academic Emergency Medicine (2011) 29: 697.

Blaivas M Adhikari S and Lander L. A Prospective Comparison of Procedural Sedation and Ultrasound guided interscalene Nerve Bock for Shoulder Reduction in the ED – Acad Emerg Med (2011) 18(9): 922-7.

Christos SC, Chiampas G, Offman R, Riffenburg R. Ultrasound-Guided Three-In-One Nerve Block for Femur Fractures; Western Journal of Emergency Medicine (2010) 11(4): 310-313.

Beaudoin FL, Nagdev A, Merchant RC, Becker BM. Ultrasound-guided femoral nerve blocks in elderly patients with hip fractures; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2010) 28: 76-81.

O’Donnell B, Riordan J, Ahmad I, Iohom G. A Clinical Evaluation of Block Characteristics Using One Milliliter 2% Lidocaine in Ultrasound-Guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Block; Anesthesia & Analgesia (2010) 111: 808-810.

Belavy D. Regional Anesthesia Needles Can Introduce Ultrasound Gel into Tissues; Anesthesia & Analgesia (2010) 111: 811-812.

Stone MB, Muresanu M. Ultrasound-guided Ulnar Nerve Block in the Management of Digital Abscess and Hand Cellulitis; Academic Emergency Medicine (2010) 17(1): E3-E4.

Bellingham G Peng P. A low cost ultrasound phantom of the lumbar spine – Reg Anes Pain Med (2010) 35:290-3.

Renes SH, Rettig HC, Gielen MJ et al. Ultrasound-Guided Low-dose Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block Reduces the Incidence of Hemidiaphragmatic Paresis; Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (2009) 34(5): 498-502.

van Geffen GJ, Moayeri N, Bruhn J et al. Correlation Between Ultrasound Imaging, Cross Sectional Anatomy and Histology of the Brachial Plexus; Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (2009) 34(5): 490-497. ; Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine- Volume 34, (2009)

Sites BD, Beach ML, Chinn CD et al. A Comparison of Sensory and Motor Loss After a Femoral Nerve Block Conducted with Ultrasound Versus Ultrasound and Nerve Stimulation; Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (2009) 34(5): 508-513.

Reid N, Stella J, Ryan M, Ragg M. Use of ultrasound to facilitate accurate femoral nerve block in the emergency department; Emergency Medicine Australasia (2009) 21: 124-130.

Dolan J, Williams A, Murney E et al. Ultrasound Guided Fascia Iliaca Block: A Comparison With the Loss of Resistance Technique; Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (2008) 33: 526-531.

Stone MB, Wang R, Price DD. Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block vs procedural sedation for the treatment of upper extremity emergencies; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2008) 26: 706-710.

Liebmann O, Price D, Mills C et al. Feasibility of Forearm Ultrasonography-Guided Nerve Blocks of the Radial, Ulnar, and Median Nerves for Hand Procedures in the Emergency Department; Annals of Emergency Medicine (2006) 48: 558-562.

Blaivas M, Lyon M. Ultrasound-guided interscalene block for shoulder dislocation reduction in the ED; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2006) 24: 293-296.

Soft Tissue and Musculoskeletal

Castleberg E, Jenson N, Dinh VA. Diagnosis of necrotizing faciitis with bedside ultrasound: the STAFF exam - Western Journal of Emergency Medicine (2014)

Mistry RD, Marin JR, Alpern ER. Abscess volume and ultrasound characteristics of community associated MRSA infection – Pediatric Emergency Care (2013) 29:140-144.

Waterbrook AL, Adhikari S, Stolz U et al. The accuracy of point of care ultrasound to diagnose long bone fractures in the ED - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2013) 31:1352-1356.

Marin JR, Dean AJ, Bilker WB et al.  Emergency ultrasound-assisted examination of skin and soft tissue infections in the pediatric emergency department – Academic Emergency Medicine (2013) 20:545-553.

Joshi N, Lira A, Mehta N et al. Diagnostic accuracy of history, physical examination and bedside ultrasound for the diagnosis of extremity fractures in the emergency department: a systematic review - Academic Emergency Medicine (2013) 20:1-15.

Rabiner JE, Friedman LM, Khine H, Avner JR, Tsunt JW. Accuracy of point-of-care ultrasounf for diagnosis of skull fractures in children - Pediatrics (2013) 131(6):1757-1764.

Abbasi S, Molaie H, Hafezimoghadam P et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonographic examination in the management of shoulder dislocation in the emergency department – Annals of Emergency Medicine (2013)

Mackenzie DC, Leibmann O. Point of care ultrasound facilitates diagnosing a posterior shoulder dislocation – The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2013)

Adhikari S, Blaivas M. Sonography first for subcutaneous abscess and cellulitis evaluation - Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2012) 31:1509-1512.

Minardi JJ, Lander OM. Septic Hip Arthritis: Diagnosis and Arthrocentesis Using Bedside Ultrasound - Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012) 43(2):316-318.

Nestorova R, Vlad V, Petranova T et al. Ultrasonography of the hip – Medical Ultrasonography (2012) 14(3):217-224.

Rehrer M, Mantuani D, Nagdev A. Identification of peritonsillar abscess by transcutaneous cervical ultrasound - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012).

Teefey SA. Shoulder Sohography. Why we do i -Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2012) 311:1325-1331.

Lee KS. Musculoskeletal sonography of the tendon - Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2012) 31:1879-1884.

Jacobsen J. Shoulder Ultrasound: Anatomy, Technique, and Scanning Pitfalls – Radiology (2011) 260(1): 6-16.

Adhikari S, Marx J and Crum T. Point of care ultrasound diagnosis of acute Achilles tendon rupture in the ED - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012) 30: 634.

Canagasebey M Callaghan M and Carley S. The Sonographic Ottawa Foot and Ankle Rules Study – Emerg Med J (2011) 28: 838-40.

Sisson C Nagdev A and Tirado A. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Traumatic Partial Triceps Tendon Tear in the Emergency Department – J Emerg Med (2011) 40(4): 436-438.

Heiner J Proffitt A and McArthur J. The Ability of Emergency Nurses to Detect Simulated Long Bone Fractures with Portable Ultrasound - Int Emerg Nurs (2011) 19: 120-124.

Wang R Frazee B. Visual Stimulus: Splinter Localization with Ultrasound – J Emerg Med (2011) 41(3): 294-5.

Hoffmann B. Sonographic Bedside Detection of Sialolithiasis with Submandibular Gland Obstruction – Am J Emerg Med (2011) 29: 574e5-574e7.

Ahmed R Nazarian L. Overview of Musculoskeletal Sonography – Ultrasound Quart (2010) 26(1): 26-35.

Gadsden J, McCally C and Hadzic A. Monitoring during peripheral nerve blockade - Current Opinions in Anesthesiology (2010) 23: 656-661.

Heiner JD. A new simulation model for skin abscess identification and management - Sim Healthcare (2010) 5:238-241.

Ang S Lee S and Lam K. Ultrasound Guided Reduction of Distal Radius Fracture – Am J Emerg Med (2010) 28: 1002-8.

Tejura T Wable S and Horrow M. Thrombosed popliteal venous aneurysm – Ultrasound Quart (2010) 26(2): 111-3.

Huang MN, Chang YC, Wu CH et al. The prognostic values of soft tissue sonography for adult cellulitis without pus or abscess formation; Internal Medicine Journal (2009) 39(12): 841-844.

Crystal C Masneri D and Hellums J. Bedside Ultrasound for the Detection of Soft Tissue Foreign Bodies: A Cadaveric Study. J Emerg Med (2009) 36(4): 377-80.

De Maeseneer M Marcelis S and Jager T. Sonography of the Normal Ankle: A Target Approach Using Skeletal Reference Points – Am J Radiology (2009) 192: 487-495.

Gaspari R Blehar D and Mendoza M. Use of Ultrasound Elastography for Skin and Subcutaneous Abscesses –J of Ultrasound Med (2009) 28: 855-860.

Langevin H Stevens-Tuttle D and Fox JR. Ultrasound evidence of altered lumbar connective tissue in human subjects with chronic low back pain – Musculoskeletal Disorders (2009) 10: 151-9.

Louis LJ. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Intervention: Principles and Advances; Radiologic Clinics of North America (2008) 46: 515-533.

Tayal V Antoniazzi J and Pariyadath M. Prospective Use of Ultrasound Imaging to Detect Bony Hand Injuries – J Ultrasound Med (2007) 26: 1143-1148.

Chen L, Kim Y and Moore C. Diagnosis and Guided Reduction of Forearm Fractures in Children Using Bedside Ultrasound – Ped Emerg Care (2007) 23(8): 528-31.

Tayal V Hasan N and Norton J. The Effect of Soft-tissue Ultrasound on the Management of Cellulitis in the Emergency Department – Acad Emerg Med (2006) 13(4): 384-388.

Turkcuer I Atilla R and Topacoglu H. Do we really need plain and soft-tissue radiographs to detect radiolucent foreign bodies in the ED ? Am J Emerg Med (2006) 24(7): 763-8.

Filbo BCA, Sakae FA, Sennes LU et. al. Intraoral and transcutaneous cervical ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of peritonsillar cellulitis and abscesses - Rev Bras Otorrinolaringol (2006) 72(3): 377-81.

Squire B Fox JC and Anderson C. ABSCESS: Applied Bedside Sonography for Convenient Evaluation of Superficial soft Tissue Infection – Acad Emerg Med (2005) 12(7): 601-606.

Fincke EM Padalka G and van Holsbeek M. Evaluation of Shoulder Integrity in Space: First Report of Musculoskeletal US on the International Space Station – Radiation (2005) 234: 319-322.

Marshburn J Legome E and Sargsyan A. Goal-Directed Ultrasound in the Detection of Long-Bone Fractures – J Trauma (2004) 17(2): 329-332.

Blaivas M Theodoro D and Duggal S. Ultrasound-Guided Drainage of Peritonsillar Abscess by the Emergency Physician – Am J Emerg Med (2003) 21(2): 155-8.

Orlinsky M Knittel P and Feit T. The Comparative Accuracy of Radiolucent Foreign Body Detection using Ultrasonography – Am J Emerg Med (2000) 18(4): 401-3.

Valley VT and Stahmer SA. Targeted musculoarticular sonography in the detection of joint effusions - Academic Emergency Medicine (2001) 8(4): 361-367.

Blaivas M. Ultrasound guided breast abscess aspiration in a difficult case - Academic Emergency Medicine (2001) 8: 398-401.

Hill R Conron R and Greissinger P. Ultrasound for the Detection of Foreign Bodies in Human Tissue – Ann of Emerg Med (1997) 29(3): 353-6.

Vascular Access

Powell JT, Mink JT, Nomura JT et al. Ultrasound-guidance can reduce adverse events during femoral central venous cannulation -The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2014)

Horowitz R, Fossett JG, Bailitz J et al. The FLUSH study - flush the line and ultrasound the heart: ultrasonographic confirmation of central femoral venous line placement - Annals of Emergency Medicine (2014)

Shokoohi H, Boniface K, McCarthy M. Ultrasound guided peripheral intravenous access program is associated with a marked reduction in central venous catheter use in noncritically ill emergency department patients – Annals of Emergency Medicine (2013) 61:198-203.

Heinrichs J, Fritze Z, Vandermeer B, et al. Ultrasonographically guided peripheral intravenous cannulation of children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Annals of Emergency Medicine (2013) 61:444-454.

Stone MB, Mallin M, Cook J. Another WIN for point-of-care ultrasound: the wire-in-needle modified seldinger technique for ultrasound-guided central venous access – Academic Emergency Medicine (2013)

Prekker ME, Scott NL, Hart D et al. Point of care ultrasound to estimate central venous pressure: a comparison of three techniques – Critical Care Medicine (2013) 41:0.

Siva B, Hunt A, Boudville N. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound estimation of central venous pressure using the internal jugular vein - Journal of Critical Care (2012) 27: 315:e7-315:e11.

Ho AMH, Ricci CJ, Ng CSH et al. The Medial-Transverse Approach for Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation: An Example of Lateral Thinking; The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012) 42(2): 174-177.

Summerkamp SK, Romaniuk VM, Witting MD et. al. A comparison of longitudinal and transverse approaches to ultrasound guided axillary vein cannulation - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012).

Schoenfeld E, Boniface K, Shokoohi H. ED technicians can successfully place ultrasound-guided intravenous catheters in patients with poor vascular access; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2011) 29: 496-501.

Schoenfeld EM, Shokoohi H, Boniface K. Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Intravenous Access in the Emergency Department: Patient Centered Survey; Western Journal of Emergency Medicine (2011) 12(4): 475-477.

Moak JH, Lyons MS, Wright SW, Lindsell CJ. Needle and guidewire visualization in ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein cannulation; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2011) 29: 432-436.

Fields JM, Dean AJ, Todman RW et al. The effect of vessel depth, diameter, and location on ultrasound guided peripheral intravenous catheter longevity - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2011)

Luyet C, Hartwich V, Urwyler N et al. Evaluation of a novel needle guide for ultrasound-guided phantom vessel cannulation; Anaesthesia (2011) 66: 715-720.

Schoenfeld EM, Shokoohi H, Boniface K. Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Intravenous Access in the Emergency Department: Patient Centered Survey; Western Journal of Emergency Medicine (2011) 12(4): 475-477.

Sekiguchi H, Tokita JE, Minani T et. al. A prerotational simulation based workshop improves the safety of central venous catheter insertion - Chest (2011) 140(3):652-658.

Balls A, LoVecchio F, Kroeger A et al. Ultrasound guidance for central venous catheter placement: results from the Central Line Emergency Access Registry Database; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2010) 28: 561-567.

Mallin M, Louis H, Madsen T. A novel technique for ultrasound guided supraclavicular subclavian cannulation - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2010) 28: 956-969.

Stone MB, Nagdev A, Murphy MC, Sisson CA. Ultrasound detection of guidewire position during central venous catheterization; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2010) 28: 82-84.

Barsuk JH, Cohen ER, McGaghie WC, Wayne DB. Long-Term Retention of Central Venous Catheter Insertion Skills After Simulation-Based Mastery Learning; Academic Medicine (2010) 85(10): S9-S12.

Stone MB, Moon C, Sutijono D, Blaivas M. Needle tip visualization during ultrasound-guided vascular access: short-axis vs long-axis approach; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2010) 28: 343-347.

Blaivas M. Video Analysis of Accidental Arterial Cannulation With Dynamic Ultrasound Guidance for Central Venous Access; Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (2009) 28: 1239-1244.

Phelan M, Hagerty D. The oblique view: an alternative approach for ultrasound-guided central line placement; The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2009) 37(4): 403-408.

Levitov AB, Aziz S, Slonim AD. Before we go too far: Ultrasound-guided central catheter placement; Critical Care Medicine (2009) 37(8): 2473-2474.

Blaivas M, Adhikari S. An unseen danger: Frequency of posterior vessel wall penetration by needles during attempts to place internal jugular vein central catheters using ultrasound guidance; Critical Care Medicine (2009) 37(8): 2345-2349.

Bauman M, Braude D, Crandall C. Ultrasound-guidance vs. standard technique in difficult vascular access patients by ED technicians; American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2009) 27: 135-140.

Bellazzini MA, Rankin PM, Gagnon RE, Bjoernsen LP. Ultrasound Validation of Maneuvers to Increase Internal Jugular Vein Cross-sectional Area and Decrease Compressibility - American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2009) 27: 454-459.

Stein J, George B, River G et al. Ultrasonographically Guided Peripheral Intravenous Cannulation in Emergency Department Patients With Difficult Intravenous Access: A Randomized Trial; Annals of Emergency Medicine (2009) 54(1): 33-40.

Froehlich CD, Rigby MR, Rosenberg ES et al. Ultrasound-guided central venous catheter placement decreases complications and decreases placement attempts compared with the landmark technique in patients in a pediatric intensive care unit; Critical Care Medicine (2009) 37(3): 1090-1096.

Barsuk JH, McGaghie WC, Cohen ER et. al. Use of simulation based mastery learning to improve the quality of central venous catheter placement in a medical intensive care unit. Journal of Hospital Medicine (2009) 4:397-403.

Bentley SK, Seehala R, Weingart SD. Ultrasound guided axillary vein approach to the subclavian vein for central venous access - Annals of Emergency Medicine (2008) 52(4):475-476.

Werner SL, Jones RA and Emerman CL. Effect of Hip Abduction and External Rotation on Femoral Vein Exposure for Possible Cannulation - The Journal of Emergency Medicine (2008) 35(1):73-75.

Chenkin J, Lee S, Huynh T et al. Procedures Can be Learned on the Web: A Randomized Study of Ultrasound-guided Vascular Access Training - Academic Emergency Medicine (2008) 15:949-954.

Mills CN, Liebmann O, Stone MB, Frazee BW. Ultrasonographically Guided Insertion of a 15-cm Catheter Into the Deep Brachial or Basilic Vein in Patients With Difficult Intravenous Access; Annals of Emergency Medicine (2007) 50: 68-72.

Pirotte T, Veyckemans F. Ultrasound-guided subclavian vein cannulation in infants and children: a novel approach; British Journal of Anaesthesia (2007) 98: 509-14.

Lewin MR, Stein J, Wang R et al. Humming Is as Effective as Valsalva’s Maneuver and Trendelenburg’s Position for Ultrasonographic Visualization of the Jugular Venous System and Common Femoral Veins; Annals of Emergency Medicine (2007) 50: 73-77. Annals of Emergency Medicine - Volume 50, Number 1 (July, 2007)

Stone MB, Hern HG. Inadvertent Carotid Artery Cannulation During Ultrasound Guided Central Venous Catheterization; Annals of Emergency Medicine (2007) 49(5): 720.

Leung J, Duffy M, Finckh A. Real-Time Ultrasonographically-Guided Internal Jugular Vein Catheterization in the Emergency Department Increases Success Rates and Reduces Complications: A Randomized, Prospective Study; Annals of Emerg Med (2006) 48: 540-547.

Constantino TG, Parikh AK, Satz WA, Fojtik JP. Ultrasonography-Guided Peripheral Intravenous Access Versus Traditional Approaches in Patients With Difficult Intravenous Access; Annals of Emergency Medicine (2005) 46: 456-461.

Wang R, Snoey E, Frazee B. Ultrasound-Guided Deep Brachial and Basilic Vein Cannulation in the Emergency Department; The California Journal of Emergency Medicine (2005) 6(2): 38-40.

Sandhu NS. Transpectoral Ultrasound-Guided Catheterization of the Axillary Vein: An Alternative to Standard Catheterization of the Subclavian Vein; Anesthesia and Analgesia (2004) 99: 183-187.

Hind D, Calvert N, McWilliams R et al. Ultrasonic locating devices for central venous cannulation: meta-analysis; British Medical Journal (2003) 327(7411): 361.

Keyes LE, Frazee BW, Snoey ER et al. Ultrasound-Guided Brachial and Basilic Vein Cannulation in Emergency Department Patients With Difficult Intravenous Access; Annals of Emergency Medicine (1999) 34: 711-714.

Hilty WM, Hudson PA, Levitt MA, Hall JB. Real-Time Ultrasound-Guided Femoral Vein Catheterization During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; Annals of Emergency Medicine (1997) 29: 331-33.